Garden Bridge
Apple store was proposed for Garden Bridge in return for sponsorship

Ten statement buildings that never got built

AfterFoster + Partners'设计the Tulip towerwasrecently rejected by the UK government, weround up10 other high-profile building projects that were never actually built.

Mexico City International Airport by Foster and Romero

墨西哥城市机场,福斯特 +合作伙伴

The Tulip is not the first timeFoster + Partnershas seen its design efforts go unrealised. Construction on thisairportfor Mexico City was half-complete when the project was cancelled in October 2018.

The cancellation came after a public referendum on the airport was called by Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who was at that time Mexico's president-elect, and resulted in a majority vote against it.

López Obrador had made cancelling the project a key part of his election campaign over concerns about the $13.3 billion expected cost, as well as alleged corruption and environmental worries.

Find out more about the cancelled Mexico City airport ›

Two World Trade Center by BIG

Two World Trade Center by BIG

For a while, Copenhagen-basedBIG's vision for a skyscraper made from stacked glass boxes that decrease in size as the building ascends seemed to be the strong forerunner for the Two World Trade Center.

But after a protracted back-and-forth, the developer of the World Trade Center site in New York opted last year for a skyscraper by Foster + Partners over BIG's design.

A tower that is similar in spirit could still grace the Big Apple skyline, however. Last month, Adjaye Associates launched proposals fora building that resembles an upside-down version of the BIG World Trade Center tower.

Find out more about BIG's Two World Trade Center design ›

New Tamayo Museum

New Tamayo Museum by Rojkind Arquitectos and BIG

BIGpartnered with local studioRojkind Arquitectoson the proposal for this art centre in Mexico.

The pair won a competition to design the New Tamayo Museum overlooking Mexico City back in 2009, but more than a decade later, it remains unbuilt.

Had it gone ahead, the museum would have resembled a cross jutting out of the hillside via acantilever, with a large viewing platform on its flat roof.

Find out more about the New Tamayo Museum ›

Zaha Hadid Olympic stadium

Tokyo 2020 Olympic stadium by Zaha Hadid Architects

After winning the initial design competition for Tokyo's Olympic Stadium in 2012,Zaha Hadid Architects (ZHA)'s proposal met with备受瞩目的日本建筑师的批评超出其大小和成本。公众支持也是摇摇欲坠的,与碰撞头盔和便盆相比,体育场的形状。

In July 2015, Japanese prime minister Shinzo Abe scrapped ZHA's design and the studio was unable to enter the reopened competition, having failed to secure a construction company.

TheJapan National Stadiumeventually built for the Olympics was designed byKengo Kuma and Associates.

Find out more about ZHA's Tokyo Olympic stadium design ›

Chelsea Stadium by Herzog & de Meuron

斯坦福桥(Stamford Bridge)

Swiss studioHerzog & de Meuron,与伦敦建筑公司一起工作Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands, revealed its design for a major overhaul of Chelsea FC's Stamford Bridge stadium in 2015.

将现有体育场封闭在264座砖石码头中的提议在2017年获得了规划许可,但一年后被封存。由于资金困难和持续的签证问题for the west London football club's Russian owner, Roman Abramovich.

计划同意在2020年3月耗尽,意思是Herzog & de Meuron's vision for the stadium will not see the light of day.

Find out more about Herzog & de Meuron's Chelsea FC stadium design ›

Mansion House Square by Mies van der Rohe

这座由现代主义者设计的伦敦市的琥珀色玻璃办公大楼Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, was in development for 20 years but never actually built.

Mies van der Rohe finished the design just a few weeks before his death in 1969, and famous British architectRichard Rogersdescribed the plans as "the culmination of a master architect's life work".

查尔斯王子, however, was less enamoured of what he called a "giant glass stump", and a long campaign against the tower by the royal helped ensure its ultimate rejection following a 1984 public inquiry.

建筑物是an exhibition held at the Royal Institute of British Architects in 2017.

Find out more about Mansion House Square ›

The Mile observation tower by Carlo Ratti

The Mile by Carlo Ratti

意大利建筑师Carlo Rattiunveiled plans for a mile-high observation tower almost twice the height of theBurj Khalifain 2016.


Nearly six years on there have been few updates about the plant-covered tower, which was designed to have a park at its top and was intended to provide an ecosystem for hundreds of different species.

Find out more about The Mile ›

Convention centre design by OMA

RAK Convention and Exhibition Centre by OMA

2007年,建筑公司OMAunveiled plans for a huge convention centre to be part of a new city at Ras Al Khaimah in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

However, the Death Star-like structure never became reality.

OMA also designeda structure plan for RAK, which envisioned a "mix of functions, flexibility, and a strategic reserve" for the area, which has a projected population growth to 600,000 inhabitants by 2025.

Find out more about the RAK Convention and Exhibition Centre ›

OMA tourist resort in UAE

Jebel al Jais Mountain Resort by OMA

The exhibition centre was not the only ambitious UAE project floated by OMA in 2007 that was ultimately never constructed.

The studio also produced a proposal for a tourist village on a mountainside in Ras Al Khaimah, which would have seen an inhabited dam, an inhabited bridge and a vertical village all built into a cliff.

Find out more about the Jebel al Jais Mountain Resort ›

Garden Bridge London

托马斯·希瑟威克(Thomas Heatherwick)的花园桥

TheGarden Bridge, designed for London byThomas Heatherwick, has become an infamous recent example of an abortive major building project.

由现任总理拥护Boris Johnson, who was mayor of London when it was announced in 2013, the plant-covered bridge was ditched in 2017.

That came after an inquiry found that the cost of building the Garden Bridge had risen from the original estimate of £60 million to more than £200 million, leading to Johnson's successor in City Hall, Sadiq Khan, withdrawing his support.

Find out more about the Garden Bridge ›